From June 5th through 10th, 2022, ABL provided an educational experience for 31 CEO’s, academics, and policy makers to learn about transitioning to a renewable and sustainable economy. This page is an opportunity for the delegates to share their observations, thoughts, and reflections on what they saw and learned, and how it has inspired their future work in their respective areas of influence.
- Betty Francisco & Paul Franciscoby adminabl
CEO, Boston Impact Initiative, Entrepreneur & Angel Investor with Pipeline Angels. Cofounder of Amplify Latinx. | Senior Vice President- Chief Diversity Officer at State Street
Reflections on ABL and UMass Delegation in Denmark
Earlier this month, we had the incredible opportunity to join 30 Massachusetts business and civic leaders for the Alliance for Business Leadership (ABL) delegation to Denmark to explore the country’s green transition and world-leading offshore wind industry. The #ABLinDenmark trip, which had been three years in the making, was anchored by UMass Boston researchers and funded by the Barr Foundation. This masterfully curated learning journey gave us a deep dive into how Denmark and its people have shaped a collective goal to become independent from fossil fuels, a goal accelerated by the need for energy security and addressing the climate crisis.
Over the span of six days, we got to explore the quaint, walkable neighborhoods of Copenhagen which have more bikes than cars. We visited Nordhavnen which aims to be the first carbon neutral city, and CopenHill, the cleanest waste-to-energy plant in the world, featuring a ski slope on its roof and one of the tallest artificial climbing walls in the world. We spent time visiting the Port of Esbjerg, the leading port harnessing wind power development on the continent; we toured the Middelgrunden Offshore Wind Farm, the world’s largest offshore wind farm when it was opened in 2001, and got to stand on the base of a wind turbine; we learned about Samsø Energy Island which transitioned to 100% energy self-sufficiency using wind, solar, and biomass energy, showing that getting to net zero is possible.
We learned about the wide range of clean technologies in Denmark, including offshore and onshore wind, solar, biomass and energy-from-waste, and other energy assets like Power-to-X. We also learned about Denmark’s climate policies, investments, job targets, and partnerships from the State of Green, Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners, Realdania, and the Office of the US Ambassador to Denmark. Denmark’s social democracy, which has a commitment to long-term policy solutions and social benefits like free education and healthcare for families and workers, give it a competitive edge. No wonder Denmark is deemed the happiest country in the world.
This knowledge sharing provided great insights and ideas for how Massachusetts can adopt some of the best practices from Denmark’s green transition. Before leaving Copenhagen, the ABL team and the delegation debriefed what we learned and next steps. In Axios style, I’ve outlined my three key takeaways. The trip was an unforgettable gift of learning and connection, a profound call to action for me and my colleagues to accelerate the green transition in MA as part of an inclusive economic recovery and future.
1. Community Ownership Can Power an Inclusive Green Transition
Big Idea: What if you could own a share of the wind farms coming to the Massachusetts coast, and benefit from the electricity and revenues they generate? Community ownership can drive Massachusetts’ clean transition, allowing low-moderate income communities and people of color to build wealth, create good career-building jobs, and accelerate the transition to a green economy.
Why It Matters: Locally owned community wind projects create economic opportunity for multiple community stakeholders who benefit from jobs, lower energy costs, and participation in the project revenues. Direct community ownership of wind projects also allows for distributed decision-making, community support, and increased collaboration.
Go Deeper: In Denmark, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, rather than commercially owned.
- Denmark’s earliest offshore wind farms were financed using cooperative ownership models that allowed local residents to invest, make decisions and get a financial return.
- Built in 2000, the Middelgrunden off-shore wind farm outside of Copenhagen was the world’s largest wind farm, with 50% owned by 10,000 local residents in the cooperative, who now make a 7-11 percent return on their investments.
- Samsø Energy Island which is now carbon neutral, boasted 100% local ownership of the renewable energy investments which led to significant benefits for the island community and economy, including new jobs and local growth.
- Recognizing the impact of energy cooperatives: in 2011, the Danish government passed a law requiring new wind farms be at least 20% community-owned.
What’s Next: Investments in wind-energy projects in the United States are getting so large and capital intensive that they are largely funded by commercial developers and investment funds with limited local ties. Policies and government incentives will be necessary to encourage commercial developers to incorporate community ownership and public-private investment models, where environmental justice communities in MA can benefit the most.
2. Three Ps of the Green Transition: Policies, Partnerships, and Place
Big Picture: Denmark aims to be the world leader in the clean energy transition, committed to achieving 70% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and getting to net-zero by 2050, while also achieving sustainable growth and job creation.
- Effective public-private partnerships have allowed shifting Danish government administrations to enact policies and programs with the support of business and industry, ensuring successful implementation and the broader buy-in by the Danish people.
Why it Matters: Building an inclusive renewable energy sector requires stability in energy policy, a high level of participation from public and private players, and investment in innovative technologies that center people and community.
Zoom Out: Offshore wind will be the dominant source of clean energy for the MA and New England grid by 2050, thus the race to bring technologies, know-how, and talent to our region is fierce.
Zoom In: Massachusetts has the potential to generate the most offshore wind power of any state in New England, allowing us to serve the Bay State’s electricity demand, and supply other New England states.
- Offshore wind developers who invest in local communities and businesses where their projects are located will have the competitive advantage.
- Innovation and small business growth is also dependent on how we develop our clean energy talent base.
- The bill supports investments in wind industry workforce development, transmission infrastructure, strengthens wildlife protection, invests in energy storage, modernizes our grid, and prioritizes social equity in wind development.
- Community leaders, workers, and local advocates will need to have their voices invited to the table to shape legislation that prioritizes equity, justice, economic inclusion, and ownership for our most under-served communities.
3. It’s All About the Jobs
Greening the Workforce: Huge investments and commitments to jobs and economic development are being made by Mayflower Wind and Vineyard Wind, the two offshore wind developers coming to Cape Cod.
Why It Matters: Successful development of MA’s offshore wind sector requires a well-trained, local clean energy workforce that reflects the Commonwealth’s diverse communities.
- In 2018, MassCEC released the 2018 Massachusetts Offshore Wind Workforce Assessment, which found that the deployment of 1,600 MW of offshore wind would create between 6,500 and 9,500 wind construction and operations jobs over the next ten years, and generate between $1.4 billion to $2.1 billion of revenue for MA.
- Offshore wind jobs are well-paying jobs that require a diverse technical workforce spanning an estimated 74 occupations according to the American Wind Energy Association’s 2020 economic assessment.
State of Play: Clean energy jobs represent about 3% of the Massachusetts workforce and the industry accounts for more than $13.7 billion in gross revenue according to the MassCEC.
- A follow-up MassCEC Study on Offshore Wind Workforce Training & Development identified the requirements and opportunities for the emerging offshore wind workforce, showing that construction, maintenance/repair, engineering, and manufacturing occupations have the largest gaps.
- MA has strong training programs but deeper investment will be needed to prioritize talent development and new business formation in our most marginalized communities.
What’s Next: Our talent development strategy to support the offshore wind and renewable energy sector in MA can be a game changer in closing the racial wealth divide. This is a unique opportunity to create career-building roles, union jobs and long-term, transferable employment opportunities between offshore wind and other industries for Black and Brown residents in MA. We need all hands on deck – including diverse voices and community organizations closest to our workers – to be part of shaping programming, allocating investments and reaching out to our most overlooked talent.
Follow us on Twitter at #ABLinDenmark
- Makeeba McCrearyby JBenson
President, New Commonwealth Racial Equity and Social Justice Fund
What a simply amazing experience I had with #ABLinDenmark last week. Not only did I get to spend time with phenomenal leaders from Boston but was afforded the privilege of deep learning about the critical importance of climate justice and our ability to catch up here in MA on getting to a zero carbon footprint. Within 6 intense (and superbly designed!) days we visited the Port of Esbjerg where a full city of industry has been built to support the expansion of wind farms across the country. We had presentations from “State of Green”, a briefing from the U.S Ambassador, a boat visit to Middelgrunden Offshore Wind Farm and a tour of Copenhill for skiing and trash recycling all-in-one mountain! So many other fantastic moments including the Reffen Street Food Market, a visit to the Village of Ribe, a virtual tour of Samso Energy Island (totally energy self-sufficient) and of course- dinner and fun at Tivoli Gardens where Walt got his inspiration for Disney! Thank you to the Barr Foundation for making the trip possible.
Now we are back in MA and the question is what next? I encourage everyone to read the article linked below from the BBJ “Windfall: Offshore wind developers are pledging millions in local investments”.
We learned in Copenhagen from our Danish friends and from our local colleagues, is that Massachusetts is proactively planning long-term clean energy goals, including multiple pathways to achieve net zero emissions by 2050 — all of them including at least 15 gigawatts of electricity from offshore wind. Already planted in the cape, next up for wind farm locations are New Bedford and Salem. Thousands of jobs are coming to make sure our wind can turn into clean energy – saving MA from a slow burn and ensuring our generations to come have a chance at living in a city and state where we are safe from harmful carbon emissions. And who will get us there? What are the types of job that will emerge and who will be in them?
MayflowerWind says their investment will consider upwards of $2.5 million to ensure diversity and inclusion goals are met and joining them are Vineyard Wind and Commonwealth Wind, the state’s other upcoming offshore wind projects “committing tens of millions of dollars” to ensure our Black and Brown residents are first in line for these roles.
My 6 days in Copenhagen, Denmark will stay with me for a lifetime but the urgency of making sure we have instructional supports in place to require the commitment to racial equity is truly represented in the thousands of jobs coming on line, is my most present focus. Join me and my travel-mates from the #ABLDenmark delegation as we work together with the wind industry to make this come true.
- Betty Franciscoby JBenson
CEO, Boston Impact Initiative & Angel Investor with Pipeline Angels
Day 1 in #copenhagen with @abl_impact and @umassboston to learn about Denmark’s approach to creating a greener and more resilient economy. We had a terrific sustainable bike tour with ten neighborhood stops that gave us a flavor of how Copenhagen has moved to a biking 🚴♀️ city that centers people, green space, play and affordable housing.
- Jim Boyleby JBenson
CEO and Founder, Sustainability Roundtable, Inc.
“Impossible To Be Better”
The The Alliance for Business Leadership trip to Denmark was three years in development. In partnership with the intellectual leadership of UMass Boston and the visionary financial support of the Barr Foundation it brought more than two dozen business and policy leaders from Massachusetts to investigate Denmarks world leading success in our needed transition to a more just and sustainable prosperity.
It is an honor to be part of ABL Copenhagen Team. It is as diverse, smart, shrewd and as audacious in aspiration and accomplishments as our Commonwealth. Denmark, like MA, is free of excessive size or excessive “natural resources” (ie extracted value) and, therefore, Denmark like MA has had to turn (as Horace Mann had it) “to mine the infinite resource of the intellect of man.”
In MA we know about shared aspirations and accomplishments. On this beautful, stolen, land we call Massachusetts (“the people by the great hill”) for over 400 years pilgrims of one sort or another have dreamed in English about a more perfect union. John Winthrop, Adams & Kennedy each called MA and America (ie Kennedy) to be “like a city upon a hill.” A troubled world has never needed this type of visionary leadership towards a more cohesive shared life more.
Denmark has been acting like a “city upon a hill” when it comes to our needed transition to a more just & sustainable society. So we went there to study their success. Again & again we heard about their relative homogeneity & higher levels of trust. And more than even racial & religious homogeneity we saw the probable driver of that cohesion in a 70+% private sector unionization rate. Which is something shared with the larger and more diverse Netherlands nearby which is beginning to rival Denmark in global sustainability leadership.
What I’m left wondering is can MA with its superior immigration rates and greater diversity have both the drive and the complexion to better lead the world in our needed transition than Denmark, Netherlands or New Zealand? Certainly being a part of the world’s largest commercial market in the US helps. As does our 120+ world leading colleges and universities. But what really gives us the edge, I think, is the audacity of our immigrant culture.
The human community itself is now an immigrant into what scientists call the “Anthropocene”. An epoch of geologic time defined by man. We need to become as Calvin Coolidge had it in his 1914 speech “Have Faith in MA” – “as radical as science & as reactionary as a multiplication table.” We’re going to need the sorts of guts i heard one delegate say his father taught him after he crossed the Rio Grande into America. Like my father’s constant refrain: “make good things happen” it silently assumes great challenges & unrelenting effort. It was his dads answer to: “how are you?” and it’s also a great description of the ABL Copenhagen trip. It is: “impossible to be better!”
- Representative Jeff Royby JBenson
House Chair, Massachusetts Joint Committee on Telecommunication, Utilities, and Energy
Just wrapped up a weeklong study mission on renewable energy in Denmark with the Alliance for Business Leadership. It was an amazing experience to view renewable energy in action and see how a small country with strong trust in governance was able to generate sustainable and robust energy for its citizens. The journey offered some great ideas for implementation in Massachusetts. (Check out Rep. Roy’s photos on facebook!)
- Jen Gorkeby JBenson
Senior Director at Travaglini, Scorzoni, & Kiley LLC
Reflecting on a truly amazing experience touring Denmark last week with some of the Commonwealth’s leading business and community leaders, policymakers and academics. Thank you to The Alliance for Business Leadership, the Barr Foundation, and UMass Boston for organizing such an interesting, productive and fun tour of Denmark’s green transition. I look forward to combining what I learned about Denmark’s climate innovation, planning creativity and use of public-private partnerships with the relationships I built this past week to work toward inclusive climate action in the Commonwealth!
Highlights of the trip for me included:
- Port Esbjerg: Once a leading port of fishing and oil and gas, the Port today reflects the results of a green transition, handling more shipping for the offshore wind industry than other port in Europe.
- Samso Island: This island municipality has completely transformed its energy system from fossil fuels to renewable energy, becoming the world’s first renewable energy island. Samso is carbon negative and boasts 100% ownership of renewable energy investments. They have ushered in this transition while putting the community at the center of thinking and planning about this green transition.
- Middelgrunden Wind Farm: The world’s largest offshore wind farm when it opened in 2001, the farm consists of 20 turbines equally shared by its developers and a private cooperative partnership.
- Nordhavn: This harbor area, formerly an industrial shipyard, is on track to support Copenhagen’s vision to become the first carbon neutral city. Development in Nordhavn is focused on design and planning that supports complex urban life, business, and areas that promote rest and recreation.
- Coppenhill: The cleanest waste-to-energy plant in the world, Copenhill is an incredible example of creativity and multi-purpose design with tree-lined hiking trails up the building, a ski slope on its roof and a climbing wall on its facade.
- June 7: Presentations from State of Green, Danish Energy Agency, and DanishConfederation of Industry by JBenson
Overview: A review of the green movement in Denmark, explanations on the policies that led to success and their goals for the future, and an overview of the partnerships with private industries working toward a greener, net-zero future.
The Green Movement in Denmark is considered to be one of the most ambitious national climate mitigation strategies in the world. While the country has taken notable strides to become less reliant on fossil fuels since the late 20th Century, the year 2020 marked a major turning point for the nation when the Danish Climate Act was passed. With this act, the current government has agreed to reduce the country’s greenhouse gas emissions by 70 percent compared to 1990 levels by the year 2030, working towards net-zero by the year 2050 (at the latest). In order to achieve these goals, Denmark’s government will establish and present annual plans, with concrete initiatives to reach carbon neutrality across all sectors, including energy, housing, industry, transportation, energy efficiency, agriculture, land use change and forestry.
Essential to achieving these ambitious goals for the future are public-private climate partnerships spearheaded by industry leaders. As part of this major strategy, the public sector’s role involves setting long-term goals and conditions, while the private sector works to provide and produce the innovative solution and investments needed to achieve the goals. The partnerships established as part of these efforts will progress local initiatives while supporting the national agenda.
State of Green
Overview: A not-for-profit, public-private partnership established in 2008
Owned by the Danish state and three leading Danish business associations
Primary role is to bring together Danish businesses, agencies, academic institutions, experts and researchers, aiming to facilitate dialogue and spur international partnerships
Danish Energy Agency
Overview: An agency under the Ministry of Climate, Energy & Utilities, established in 1976
Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners
Overview: Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners (CIP) is a fund management company specializing in tailor-made investments in energy infrastructure assets globally – in particular within renewables and the greenfield segment. Established in 2012, they are pioneers in taking their approach and methods global and in realizing a profitable green energy transition based on high ESG standards.
CIP is a trusted partner in projects across a wide range of technologies including offshore wind, onshore wind, solar PV, biomass and energy-from-waste, transmission and distribution, reserve capacity and storage, and other energy assets like Power-to-X. Their team consists of highly experienced specialists with relevant industrial backgrounds and skills within engineering, structuring and de-risking, construction and operation, as well as mergers & acquisitions and project financing. The CIP team comprises over 300 professionals across over 30 nationalities.
Further reading: https://cipartners.dk
Tour of Middelgrunden Wind Farm
Overview: Since the wind farm was proposed in 1996, Middelgrunden Offshore Wind Farm has grown to become a world-famous attraction. The wind farm was built in Oresund, a location 3.5km offshore, that was previously used as a dumping area for building materials. The construction began in 2000 and was completed the same year, after a series of public hearings from 1997 to 1999. The wind farm produces up to 85,000MWh of power annually, which makes up about three percent of Copenhagen’s total power consumption. The farm is made up of 20 turbines shared by its developers, Københavns Energi and Middelgrundens Vindmøllelaug, a private cooperative partnership with an investment of $60 million.
The turbines of the Middelgrunden Offshore Wind Farm produce up to two megawatts each and altogether span 3.4km by 1 hectare. To prevent corrosion from constant exposure to salt water, the turbines are protected by a high-grade corrosion resistant paint, as well as internal climate control, an automatic lubrication system, and built-in cranes for servicing. The cranes allow for easy servicing of the turbines in case of problems. The foundations of the turbines are also capped to prevent damage from North Sea ice. The power produced by the turbines is transmitted to the central (tenth) turbine, and then routed to the Amagar power station in eastern Denmark via a 30kV subsea cable.
Tour of CopenHill
Overview: CopenHill is the cleanest waste-to-energy plant in the world, capable of converting 440,000 tons of waste into clean energy annually. More than that, it is a futuristic piece of public infrastructure, with tree-lined hiking trails, ski slopes on its roof, and the alleged “tallest artificial climbing wall in the world” on its facade.
Located in an industrial area near the city center, the plant aspires to become an exemplary model in the field of waste management and energy production that aligns with Copenhagen’s goal of becoming the world’s first carbon-neutral city by 2025. As an architectural landmark, the original idea of CopenHill dates back to 2002, when Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) proposed to insert a ski-slope topography above the largest department store in the densest area of Copenhagen. The idea didn’t come to fruition until 2011, when the firm and an associated consortium won an international design competition for Copenhagen’s waste-to-energy plant.
The waste management facility started operations in 2017 and the artificial skiing slope and recreational hiking area opened on top of the building in 2019. Today, CopenHill not only delivers electricity and district heating to 680,000 people in 150,000 homes every day, but also serves as a model of public infrastructure that contributes to the social life of the citizens and the sustainability goals of Copenhagen.
- June 8: Presentation from Samsø Island, Visit to US Ambassador’s Residenceby JBenson
Presentation from Samsø Energy Island
Overview: Samsø, a rural island off the coast of Denmark is the world’s first renewable energy island. Among other achievements, the island has become carbon negative, has 100% local ownership of renewable energy investments, and has studied and experienced significant socio-economic benefits from its green transition.
Visit to US Ambassador’s Residence
Overview: Full Delegation: Briefing from the U.S. Embassy and Chargé d’Affaires ad
interim Jim Boughner.
- June 6: Esbjerg, Ribeby JBenson
Monday, June 6
Tour Port of Esbjerg with Port CEO Dennis Jul Pedersen
Visit to the Village of Ribe & Ribe Cathedral
About the Port of Esbjerg
Since 1874, the Port of Esbjerg has been the main center for sea carriage and trade between Denmark and the rest of the world. Today, the Port of Esbjerg is an international, multimodal transport center and an important Scandinavian gateway to the world. More than 200 companies employing over 10,000 people are located at the port.
Known as Denmark’s largest fishing port during most of the 20th century, it became the primary base for the Danish oil and gas industry when the Danish Underground Consortium (DUC) discovered the first traces of oil in the North Sea in 1966 and started large-scale extraction from 1971.
In the early 2000s, several companies located in Esbjerg contributed to build Horns Rev I, the first large-scale offshore wind farm in the North Sea, kickstarting the rapid development of offshore wind power in Denmark. Today, more than 80% of the current offshore wind capacity installed in Europe was shipped from the Port of Esbjerg, making it the leading port in terms of handling and shipping of wind power in the continent.
Ribe Cathedral: Church of Our Lady
Ribe is an ancient and significant village on the coast of Jutland, Denmark. It gained power as a trading city and became known as the gateway to the west, welcoming traders from all over Northern Europe. It is not surprising that this worldly city would allow the first Christian church in Denmark to be built in 855.
Ansgar, the Apostle of the North, requested land and the opportunity to build a church from King Horik. The Danes still worshipped the Norse Gods Odin, Thor, and Freyja, but the King allowed Christians to worship alongside his people. In 965, King Herald Bluetooth officially converted Denmark to Christianity, after 100 years of mostly peaceful religious acceptance.
This first building was a simple church of timber construction and was active until around 1150 when the current Cathedral construction began around the simple building. Archeologists have uncovered 82 Christian burial grounds (2000-3000 Christian Viking burials) during this time.
The current Cathedral’s construction lasted from 1150 to approximately 1220. It was originally designed and building began in the Romanesque basilica style of the early Middle Ages, but gradually took on elements of the Gothic style during construction – adding a vaulted ceiling, gothic arched windows and side chapels along the long nave.
The cathedral houses several significant examples of art from this period including the sculpture above the “Cat’s Head Door” depicting the removal of Christ from the Cross, considered the greatest example of Romanesque sculpture in Denmark. The oldest sepulchral monuments in Denmark are also found in the cathedral, the most significant of which is the 1231 work commissioned by King Valdemer for his son.
The cathedral has been through several natural and man made disasters including floods, wars, and fires. It has also gone through many updates, a particularly significant period of renovation took place during the Protestant Reformation of 1536, removing the side chapels to expand the nave into the only 5 aisle cathedral in Denmark. During the 1600 war with the Swedes, the cathedral was outfitted with canons to defend the region and was used as a military lookout and stronghold.
Today, the cathedral has suffered through a changing landscape, sinking in comparison to the rising land around it. It resides in a depression, making it more vulnerable to climate change influenced by increased flooding, threatening it’s foundation. But the cathedral welcomes in the modern world though newly commissioned art, adding a rarely seen integration of modern and middle aged religious art and iconography in the most historically and architecturally significant religious structure in Denmark.
- Day of Arrivalby JBenson
On the day of arrival the Delegation started off with a 3 hour bike tour of Copenhagen. This tour focused on sustainability and diversity throughout 2 areas of the city, detailed below.
Sustainable Neighborhoods Cycling Tour Stops:
● Dronning Louises Bro: the lakes and biking
● Blågårdsplads + blågårdsgade: intro Nørrebro
● Folkets hus / People’s house + Kirkens korshær (homelessness)
● Assistens Cemetery
● Nørrebro “heart”: intro Red square
● The black square: Superkilen
● Residence streets (Aldersrogade): Intro Østerbro
● Skt Kjelds Square
● Østergro: Urban farming and climate neighborhood
● Tåsinge Plads
● Mærsk tower (Cross the flying bridge along the Mærsk tower to
● Byoasen / the old people’s city
What we learned.
Denmark has a focus on the UNSDG’s and a national goal of
70% reduction in greenhouse gas emission by 2030. There has also been
great interest in the development of shared living communities in Denmark,
and many of the projects have sustainability and Net Zero as goals for their
construction and way of life. The certification is based on Deposit Guaranty
National Bank (DGNB) which is inspired by similar projects in Germany.
Changing focus on sustainability and lifestyle assessment in Denmark
Pollution and Efficiency
Copenhagen for example, has made tremendous strides with regards to
mobility and pollution efforts. By far their biggest focus is on energy use, as
it makes up about 80% of their carbon neutral plan to cut down on their
consumption. Copenhagen uses one of the world’s largest and most
successful district heating systems that works by using a network of pipes
to capture leftover heat from electricity production, then delivers the heat to
homes across the city. 99% of all households in Copenhagen are links are
very efficient district heating system. They have also introduced the district
cooling where they take the cold out of the water and the harbor and
distribute cold in the pipes beside the district heating pipes to help reduce
temperature in buildings, server rooms, and factories. So far, they have
reduced electricity use for cooling down buildings 70%.
Cycling in Denmark
Copenhagen is internationally known as one of the best bike cities in the
world. Working toward Denmark’s goal to become carbon neutral, the
capital city’s infrastructure has become bike-friendly in recent years to help
enhance urban health and livability. Cycling became more popular across
Danish cities throughout the latter half of the 20th century when the shocks
of the global oil crisis in the 1970s hit the industrial city hard. Since then,
cities across the country, Copenhagen in particular, continue to allocate
municipal investments in cycling-friendly infrastructure. The City’s
investments have contributed to a noticeable increase in commuters
cycling to school and work, particularly in the last decade. Cycling in
Copenhagen is not only a significant part of daily life for residents, but it
has also become a major tourist attraction as the city exemplifies the
possibilities of urban life that is less reliant on motorized transit. As
Copenhagen continues to move towards carbon-neutrality, cycling will only
become a more significant piece of the city’s identity.